As batteries become increasingly central to our daily lives, so does the demand for highly reliable and long-life batteries. This has revitalised battery-sensing activities with novel approaches to passively monitor the effects of temperature, pressure, strain, impedance and potential.

Whatever battery technology is considered, its performance is governed by the nature and dynamics of the interfaces within the battery cell, which in turn rely on temperature-driven reactions with unpredictable kinetics. Although monitoring temperature is essential for improving battery cycle life and longevity, this is not directly measured today at the cell level in electric vehicle (EV) applications.

INSTABAT, SENSIBAT and SPARTACUS overall objectives are to develop sensor solutions to detect degradation and failure mechanisms, intentionally before a loss of performance.  While INSTABAT and SENSIBAT aim to develop internal sensors, built into Li-ion battery cells that measures in real-time the internal battery cell temperature, pressure, conductivity and impedance, SPARTACUS develop an affordable external sensor solution.